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Roitto, Rikard, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9117-4943
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Roitto, R. (2016). Dangerous but contagious altruism: recruitment of group members and reform of cooperation style through altruism in two modified versions of Hammond and Axelrod’s simulation of ethnocentric cooperation. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 6(2), 154-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dangerous but contagious altruism: recruitment of group members and reform of cooperation style through altruism in two modified versions of Hammond and Axelrod’s simulation of ethnocentric cooperation
2016 (English)In: Religion, Brain & Behavior, ISSN 2153-599X, E-ISSN 2153-5981, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 154-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the possibility of recruiting other agents to one's own kind and changing their cooperation style to one's own through altruistic generosity in a simulation. This is done by modifying Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod's well-known simulation, which shows that ethnocentric behavior is the most successful strategy in a spatialized game of cooperation where color is the only attribute that agents can act on. Their simulation is altered in two steps. First, the simulation is changed so that each agent can “recruit” neighboring agents to its own color with a low probability R through out-group altruism toward non-cooperative out-group members. If recruitment is successful, there is also a probability M that the converted agent “morally reforms,” that is, changes cooperation style to the cooperative agent's style. The result is that the strategy of altruism can successfully compete with ethnocentric strategies if it leads to recruitment around 1–2% of the time, and a change of cooperation style to altruism around 0.4–0.5% of the time. Second, the simulation is altered so that only agents of one color, green, can recruit the other colors through altruism. The most obvious result of this simulation is that agents of this group become increasingly dominant with an increasing probability of recruitment. More interesting is that the overall proportion of altruists decreases and ethnocentrism becomes more dominant as a cooperation strategy compared to the first modified simulation, although not as dominant as in the original simulation by Hammond and Axelrod. That is, green can dominate the board through recruitment of other colors even though only some of the green agents are “proselytizing” altruists. The simulations have bearing on (1) how altruistic behavior spreads through cultural transmission in a population and (2) the historical problem of why apparently self-destructive behaviors of generosity and non-self-defense toward out-group individuals seems to have contributed to the expansion of religious movements in certain historical periods.

Keywords
altruism, cognitive contagion, ethnocentrism, proselytism, religion, social influence
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-419 (URN)10.1080/2153599X.2015.1022795 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2015). The polyvalence of α͗φίημι and the two cognitive frames of forgiveness in the synoptic gospels. Novum Testamentum, 57(2), 136-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The polyvalence of α͗φίημι and the two cognitive frames of forgiveness in the synoptic gospels
2015 (English)In: Novum Testamentum, ISSN 0048-1009, E-ISSN 1568-5365, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 136-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depending on whether God or a human is the forgiving agent in the Synoptic Gospels (and beyond), the verb valence of ἀφίημι, “forgive,” differs in several ways. The present article argues that the differences are reflections in linguistic conventions of the cognition that only God can remove the substance of sin, while both God and humans can remit the moral debt of sin. Construction grammar, a linguistic theory which assumes that syntax and semantics are inseparable, is used in the analysis. Theological implications are discussed.

Keywords
Forgive, verb valence, construction grammar, cognition of forgiveness
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-420 (URN)10.1163/15685365-12341489 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2014). Reintegrative Shaming and a Prayer Ritual of Reintegration in Matthew 18:15-20. Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, 79, 95-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reintegrative Shaming and a Prayer Ritual of Reintegration in Matthew 18:15-20
2014 (English)In: Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, ISSN 1100-2298, Vol. 79, p. 95-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-415 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2013). Review of Pyysiäinen, Ilkka‏. Religion, economy, and cooperation. [Review]. Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion, 1(2), 244-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Pyysiäinen, Ilkka‏. Religion, economy, and cooperation.
2013 (English)In: Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion, ISSN 2049-7555, E-ISSN 2049-7563, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 244-245Article, book review (Refereed) Published
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-422 (URN)10.1558/jcsr.v1i2.244 (DOI)
Note

Review of Pyysiäinen, Ilkka‏. Religion, economy, and cooperation. Publisher: Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, 2010. ISBN: 9783110246322, 9783110246339.

Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2013). Review of Trebilco, Paul. Self-designations and group identity in the New Testament. [Review]. Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, 78, 267-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Trebilco, Paul. Self-designations and group identity in the New Testament.
2013 (English)In: Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, ISSN 1100-2298, Vol. 78, p. 267-269Article, book review (Refereed) Published
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-425 (URN)
Note

Review of Trebilco, Paul. Self-designations and group identity in the New Testament. Publisher: Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Pr, 2012. ISBN: 9781107012998.

Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2012). Practices of confession, intercession, and forgiveness in 1 John 1.9; 5.16. New Testament Studies, 58(2), 235-253
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practices of confession, intercession, and forgiveness in 1 John 1.9; 5.16
2012 (English)In: New Testament Studies, ISSN 0028-6885, E-ISSN 1469-8145, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 235-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1 John 1.9 and 5.16 reflect practices of public confession of sins, intercession, and mediation of God's forgiveness. Divine forgiveness and belonging to the community were integrated in the Johannine community to the extent that one equalled the other. Therefore, these practices had important group-dynamic functions for the Johannine community. First, public confession functioned as a costly signal that deterred less committed group members but was meaningful to committed group members. Second, the practice of intercession induced role taking, allowing the offended party both to empathize with the offender and to restore his or her dignity and honour.

Keywords
forgiveness, intercession, confession, 1 John, costly signalling, role taking
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-418 (URN)10.1017/S0028688511000385 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2011). Behaving as a Christ-Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians. Wiona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaving as a Christ-Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians
2011 (English)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011
Series
Coniectanea Biblica: New Testament Series, ISSN 0069-8946 ; 46
Keywords
Bible. -- Ephesians -- Criticism, interpretation, etc. Christian life -- Biblical teaching. Identity (Psychology) -- Religious aspects -- Christianity
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-416 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2009). Behaving as a Christ‐Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköpings universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaving as a Christ‐Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att bete sig som en Kristus-troende : Ett kognitivt perspektiv på identitet och beteendenormer i Efersierbrevet
Abstract [en]

This study contributes to the understanding of how first century Christ-believers, particularly those who shared the imagination of Ephesians, experienced the relation between their social identity as Christ-believers and behavior norms. In order to understand this, a number of theories from the cognitive sciences are used in combination with historical-critical methods. After a theoretical survey of relevant cognitive theories and discussions about the epistemological problems of using cognitive theories on historical texts, the theories are used to understand a) how Ephesians imagines the relation between identity and behavior norms and b) the potential group dynamic effects of this imagination. The result is a demonstration of how Ephesians is able to create a coherent narrative, beginning with God’s agency and ending with behavior (norms), and facilitating psychological and group dynamic effects such as intergroup distinction, selfesteem, cognitive certainty and consensus among group members, intragroup cooperation, moral judgment and nclusion/marginalization, motivation to remain committed and, last but not least, a sense of capacity and obligation to act morally.

Abstract [sv]

Denna studie bidrar till förståelsen av hur första århundradets Kristus-troende, särskilt de som delade Efesierbrevets föreställningar, upplevde relationen mellan social identitet som Kristus-troende och beteendenormer. För att förstå detta, används ett antal kognitionsvetenskapliga teorier i kombination med historiskkritiska metoder. Efter en teoretisk genomgång av relevanta kognitionsvetenskapliga teorier och diskussioner om de epistemologiska problemen med att tillämpa kognitiva teorier på historiska texter, används teorierna för att förstå a) hur Efesierbrevet föreställer sig relationen mellan identitet och beteendenormer, och b) de potentiella gruppdynamiska effekterna av dessa föreställningar. Resultatet är en demonstration av hur Efesierbrevet är kapabelt att skapa en koherent berättelse, som börjar med Gud och slutar med beteende(-normer), och som främjar gruppdynamiska och psykologiska effekter såsom intergruppsdistinktion, självkänsla, kognitiv säkerhet och konsensus inom gruppen, intragrupps-samarbete, moraliska omdömen och inklusion/marginalisering, motivation att förbli hängiven, samt, sist men inte minst, en upplevelse av kapacitet och plikt att handla moraliskt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2009. p. 304
Keywords
Ephesians, norms, behavior norms, morality, social identity, social identity theory, social cognition, attribution, cognitive science, New Testament exegesis, Efesierbrevet, normer, beteendenormer, moral, social identitet, social identitetsteori, social kognition, attribution, kognitionsvetenskap, Nya testamentets exegetik
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-414 (URN)9789173935517 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, Key 1, Hus Key, Campus Valla, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-17 Created: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2008). Act as a Christ-believer, as a household member or as both?: a cognitive perspective on the relationship between the social identity in Christ and household identities in Pauline and deutero-Pauline texts. In: Bengt Holmberg and Mikael Winninge (Ed.), Identity formation in the New Testament: . Paper presented at Conference papers from Nordic New Testament Conference in Lund, August 2007 (pp. 141-161). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Act as a Christ-believer, as a household member or as both?: a cognitive perspective on the relationship between the social identity in Christ and household identities in Pauline and deutero-Pauline texts
2008 (English)In: Identity formation in the New Testament / [ed] Bengt Holmberg and Mikael Winninge, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008, p. 141-161Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008
Series
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, ISSN 0512-1604 ; 227
Keywords
Paul, Saint, Apostle, Jesus Christ, Bible. Epistles of Paul, Bible. Pastoral Epistles, Christians -- Identity, Household duties -- Biblical teaching, Christian life -- Biblical teaching
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-426 (URN)9783161496875 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference papers from Nordic New Testament Conference in Lund, August 2007
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Roitto, R. (2008). Behaving like a Christ-believer: a cognitive perspective on identity and behavior norms in the early Christ-movement. In: Bengt Holmberg (Ed.), Exploring early Christian identity: (pp. 93-114). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaving like a Christ-believer: a cognitive perspective on identity and behavior norms in the early Christ-movement
2008 (English)In: Exploring early Christian identity / [ed] Bengt Holmberg, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008
Series
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, ISSN 0512-1604 ; 226
Keywords
Jesus Christ, Church history -- 0030-600Historiography, Catholics -- Identity, Group identity, Ethics, Christian -- History, Knowledge, Theory of (Religion)
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ths:diva-427 (URN)9783161496745 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9117-4943

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