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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Robin
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Den offentliga sektorns åtagande för att stärka barns rättigheter: En studie om implementering av barnkonventionen som nationell lagstiftning2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child into Swedish law through an examination of the juridical difficulties in the state and municipalities. The study employed three methods: Qualitative content analysis, juridical method, and a semi-structured interview. The results show that the incorporation alone is not sufficient but is a project that needs continuous efforts to have thorough effects on children’s rights. As the phrasing of the Convention is vague it results in difficulties in exercising the rights, especially regarding the best interest of the child. Furthermore, the Swedish law prohibits children under 18 years old to bring an action to court in certain issues such as migration cases. Additionally, as Sweden has not ratified the third optional protocol of the Convention regarding the right to seek justice from the Committee on the Rights of the Child in case of a violation of rights on a national level, this further limits children to exercise their rights. On the municipal level, dissemination of information and knowledge regarding the Convention, cooperation between municipal bodies and the government, commitment for change, and access to adequate resources are all important tools for the implementation.

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  • 2.
    Almjeed, Basheer
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Förbudet mot hijab och niqab i Frankrike2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about whether the ban on hijab and niqab in France violates human rights. Also, if there are contradictions between the human rights conventions and the french ban on hijab andniqab. That is the purpose and question of the study. The topic was chosen for an interest on whether the French ban violates human rights, and if so, why is the ban still a law? To fulfill the purpose of the study, the study will be using human right conventions and a case from the European court of human rights. The study will also use a human rights based approach to further analyze whether the french ban violates human rights. The human rights based approach will also focus on the rights themselves and the implementation of the rights. The second theory used in the study is a theory on multiculturalism. The theory will focus on the term “blind fordifference”. In other words, are human rights blind for difference?The method used in this study is a qualitative content analysis. The method was chosen to analyze the content of the french ban of niqab and hijab but also to analyze the content of the human rights conventions. The result showed that there are some contradictions between the french ban and the human rights conventions. The French ban on hijab and niqab showed potential violations towards human rights articles in the human rights conventions.

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  • 3.
    Avramovic Stefanovic, Aleksandra
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Den nya svenska sexhandeln: En lägesbeskrivning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the phenomenon of the Swedish sex trade. A phenomenon that has a long history that is constantly changing, taking new forms and creating new boundaries. The purpose of this study has been to review and understand the Swedish sex trade with a focus on the effects of internet and the effects of the Swedish sex purchase act. As well as to examine how state and non-state actors work to secure the fundamental human rights to safety and an adequate safety net for people who sell sex. By conducting interviews and a literature study with state and non-state actors it has been possible to understand the Swedish sex trade and create an in-depth description of the current situation. The study's result and analysis show that the Swedish sex trade is strongly linked to the feminist perspective. In Sweden, the abolitionist feminist perspective is dominant, which is also reflected in definitions used within this field, legislation, the sex trade via internet and the Swedish safety net. This study highlights that the Swedish sex trade is a complex issue which requires a greater discussion beyond the feminist perspective.

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  • 4.
    Bigirindavyi, Delice
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Batwa i Burundi: Ett diskriminerat och marginaliserat folk2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burundi is made up of three ethnic groups, Hutu, Tutsi and Batwa. The Batwa are the indigenous people of Burundi and the smallest ethnic group in Burundi. It is estimated that the Batwa make up about 1% of the total population. Batwa consider the forest their home. But after centuries of deforestation and forest management, the Batwa gradually abandoned their forests. When forests became pastures for colonists' animals and fields were taken by colonists, many Batwa came to rely on pottery, which replaced forests and hunting as symbols of Batwa identity. During the first half of the 20th century, Burundi's new process of industrialization, the country's gradual opening to international trade, and decreased access to clay products for Batwa led to a significant weakening of the pottery trade.This has once again disrupted the main economic activities of the Batwa, making them the most vulnerable population group in Burundi. The Batwa are excluded from many provisions of Burundi's constitution in which they are not mentioned as part of Burundi's ethnic depopulation. Discrimination is a top concern for the Batwa. This discrimination manifest in three main forms: negative stereotyping, segregation and denial of rights. Discrimination is more serious in rural areas than in urban areas, mainly among local people, including local officials. Negative stereotypes could be, for example, that people refuse to sit next to a Mutwa because they are dirty, or refuse to marry a Mutwa because they are considered incestuous and immoral, or that Batwa do not cultivate because they are lazy. The traditional system of bashingantahe is a way of conferring social status on the Batwa, thus eliminating discrimination against the Batwa by non-Batwa.

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  • 5.
    Häggstrand, Felicia
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Invisible Victims of Sexual Violence: A Minor Field Study on women and girls with disabilities in Cape Town, South Africa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live a life protected from exploitation, violence, and abuse is a fundamental human right. However, this seems to be a difficult human right to fulfill, at least for women and girls living with disabilities. This thesis examines the topic of sexual violence against women and girls with disabilities in the townships Langa and Gugulethu, Western Cape Province, South Africa. By addressing the research question: How is the nature, forms, and prevalence of sexual violence experienced and perceived by women and girls with disabilities? The results of the 14 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with staff members from three local NGO’s and eleven relatives to women and girls with physical and intellectual disabilities expose a high prevalence of sexual violence. In this small investigative study, two out of eleven participants had not been subjected to sexual violence, which means that 82% of these girls had been sexually violated at least once in their lifetime and only four had reported their case to the SAPS, which is a total of 64% in this sample. These violations of basic human rights are discussed and analyzed through four themes: attitudes and values, social norms and beliefs, barriers to reporting, and the police and justice system. It is clear that to create a safe and protected environment and end gender-based violence against disabled women and girls a change in the perception that society has on disabled people is needed. Without change from within the society gender-based violence and sexual violence against women and girls with disabilities will continue to grow.

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  • 6.
    Lindholm, Josefine
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Klimatapartheid: En retorisk analys2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How we talk about climate is almost as important as how we deal with it. How we choose our words, what tactics we use to persuade each other and how we get our points across, it will all influence the choices we make to adapt, mitigate and set rules for dealing with climate change. In the summer of 2019 special rapporteur Philip Alston released his report on climate change and poverty. The report came at around the same time as the newsfeed was filled with images of California’s wildfires burning down neighbourhood after neighbourhood. But the discussion soon turned to debates regarding the use of private firemen to protect the houses of the rich and famous, in other words: the privatization of basic services. In his report Alston warns us about a scenario where the rich can pay their way to safety and the poor must face the consequences of climate change, he named the scenario climate apartheid. The purpose of this essay is to understand what Philip Alston means when he warns of an impending climate apartheid scenario and understand what consequences he sees. The method used to make the study is a critical rhetoric analysis, I have studied the rhetorical strategies Alston have used to try to persuade his readers. I have also used the theory of Yueng Foong Khong of analogies of war to try to understand the analogy of climate apartheid. What is said about climate apartheid is that it threatens the lives and rights of millions of people and it is of most importance that a strong and swift global cooperation is needed to save ourselves and protect the most vulnerable.

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  • 7.
    Marak Sandra Rangsa, Litta
    University College Stockholm, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Retributive or Restorative System?: Best Interest of Young Persons in Conflict with the Law – the Case of India2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study delves into the complexities surrounding Children in Conflict with the Law (CCL) within India’s juvenile justice system, underscoring barriers to education, mental health challenges, and peer dynamics, among other concerns. While current provisions exist to assist CCLs, there remains significant potential for holistic reform. This paper introduces restorative justice as an innovative solution, emphasizing its focus on repairing harm over punitive measures. The restorative justice model presents opportunities for holistic healing, educational integration, community engagement, non-custodial solutions, and enhanced mental health support for CCLs. The approach aligns with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) principles, advocating for detention as a last resort. Suggestions for future research include assessing the effectiveness of restorative practices, studying long-term outcomes, obtaining diverse stakeholder perspectives, and ensuring cultural sensitivity. Ultimately, integrating restorative justice principles could transform the juvenile justice system in India, promoting a child-centric, compassionate, and effective approach.

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  • 8.
    Marand, Michelle
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Vaccination: Införandet av lagstiftning om obligatorisk vaccination i Sverige2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Våren 2019 inkom det motioner till Svenska Riksdagen angående förslag gällande införandet av lagstiftning om obligatorisk vaccination. Utifrån detta kommer uppsatsen genom en fiktiv argumentationsanalys behandla ämnet ur ett rättighetsperspektiv, med fokus på tre rättigheter; rätten till hälsa, rätten till kroppslig integritet samt rätten till utbildning. Argumenten i de två olika kapitlen utgår från svensk lagstiftning samt internationella fördrag, såsom mänskliga rättigheter och Europeiska unionens stadgar. Uppsatsen besvarar även i argumentationen frågeställningar om varför obligatorisk vaccination bör vara en mänsklig skyldighet enligt rätten till hälsa samt vilka mänskliga rättigheter en lagstiftning om obligatorisk vaccination bryter mot. Syftet med uppsatsen är att nå fram till ett översiktligt svar gällande om individuell rätt, såsom kroppslig integritet och utbildning eller allmän folkhälsa bör prioriteras i frågan. Detta undersöks även med hjälp av Marion Youngs teori om den sociala förbindelsens ansvarsmodell, som syftar till att vi är moraliska aktörer som har en moralisk skyldighet till alla människor att minimera lidande. Slutsatserna i uppsatsens sista del visar att uppsatsens tes motbevisas genom argumentationen.

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  • 9.
    Palmgren, Bengt
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Svenska statliga företag och mänskliga rättigheter: En undersökning av regeringens ägarstyrning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the governance by the Swedish government of the state-owned enterprises in relation to UN Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights. In the study the Swedish state’s ownership policy is analyzed together with the Swedish national action plan for business and human rights in relation to article 4 in the UN Guiding Principles.The method used in the study is a critical legal reasoning around the text combined with other external perspectives such as the underpinning values and the context. The conclusion of the study is that the Swedish state’s ownership policy should be interpreted in the light of international law, since there are compelling reasons grounded in previous research that article 4 in the UN Guiding Principles is related to the state’s duty to protect and the requirement of due diligence. The study demonstrates that the Swedish government has taken several steps in relation to the state-owned companies, although it is hard to conclude that these are additional in the meaning of article 4. The requirement in the UN Guiding Principles on state-owned enterprises to perform human rights due diligence and supported by international law is not expressed in the State’s ownership policy. Another conclusion is that the requirements and expectations on state-owned enterprises with regard to human rights are integrated with firm expectations on business opportunities. These requirements and expectations could be characterized as instrumental for the overriding objective of the state-owned enterprises: long-term value generation.

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  • 10.
    Pettersson Bergman, Sara
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt välbefinnande under covid-19: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie om i vilken mån Sveriges covid-19-strategi under våren och sommaren 2020 tagit hänsyn till olika hälsoaspekter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2020 WHO classified the coronavirus Covid-19 as a pandemic. Sweden took a different approach than most countries and let most parts of society stay open. This has gotten much criticism around the world. The main purpose of this essay is to examine to which degree this strategy took health aspects, such as psychical health, mental health, social health and domestic violence, into consideration. A theory of Sweden’s strategy as an individualistic approach will be applied and set against WHO’s definition of health as ”a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. A qualitative literature review of Sweden’s strategy indicated that different health aspects have been taken into consideration, especially regarding what measures have not been done or measures which have been removed. It’s also been clear that different groups received different amounts of consideration. The most distinct difference was between different age-groups. 

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  • 11.
    Saad, Dalia
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Den ja’faritiska familjerätten i Libanon: en kvalitativ analys om kvinnors mänskliga rättigheter i skilsmässotvister2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Lebanon exists fifteen different religious courts treating personal status laws i.e., laws regarding marriage and divorce, one of these is the ja’farite court. The purpose of this essay is to clarify the process of marriage and divorce within the ja’farite court and to further investigate in which ways the ja’farite court violate women’s human rights. To answer these questions the research method used is a text analysis through a qualitative method where the analysis and the conclusion present the results of the research. The result and the conclusion present that the ja’farite court violate several articles from the CEDAW; Lebanon as a state has ratified CEDAW and is obligated to commit to their undertakings. Therefore, Lebanon should first and foremost engage in the abolishment of the religious courts but also establish adequate oversight mechanism to guarantee women’s human rights. 

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  • 12.
    Sandahl, Sofia
    University College Stockholm, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    “Invisible children”: A qualitative study on the work of organisations to promote support for future children born of war2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual violence perpetrated against women during armed conflicts represents a severe violation of their fundamental human rights. This heinous act not only inflicts significant harm on the women themselves but also results in the birth of children conceived due to wartime rape. Previous research has marked that children born of war encounter various forms of discrimination, stigma, neglect, abuse, and sometimes limited access to education and healthcare. As a vulnerable group, children born of war often have single mothers who have experienced sexual violence, resulting in potential lack of support from their family and communities. This paper investigates the circumstances and obstacles faced by children born of war but also what is necessary to properly support these children, according to the five organisations interviewed. It shines light on the need for comprehensive support systems to address their specific needs in the future, such as the urgent need for early interventions and psychological support, along with providing children born of war the opportunity to connect with their biological heritage to foster a sense of identity amongst others.

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  • 13.
    Viklund Österlind, Louise
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights and Democracy, Department of Human Rights and Democracy.
    Se Eye Woba Anka ‘if he or she were your child’ : A study of NGO workers experiences of combating child trafficking in Ghana2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trafficking in children is widespread abuse of children that happens in Ghana. The concept of human rights has not yet fully found its way into societal structures and beliefs, and that creates problems when we want to ensure the protection of children from violations. Ghana is a country where children are trafficked, both transnationally and inside the country. Mainly for the sake of child labour. Even with many legislative frameworks and ratifications of conventions, the number of children being abused is high. After a nine-week minor field study in Ghana interviewing NGO workers, I am in this thesis analyzing the experiences of people working for organizations in Ghana to eliminate child trafficking in relation to the theory of childism. How great of a factor is prejudice against children in Ghana that enables child trafficking. Does it even exist? Concludingly finding that more than one factor contributes to child trafficking, mainly the lack of realization of children’s rights and the realization of children as right bearers.

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