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  • 1.
    Bergentz, Peter
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Från tvångssterilisering till särskilt stöd: – var lägger samhället ribban för godkänt?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit, att undersöka urvalsförfarandet vid tvångssteriliseringar i Sverige i mitten av 1900-talet (kapitel 3) och dagens selektiva mekanismer för särskilt stöd i skolan (kapitel 4) som historiskt jämförbara fall. Perspektivet är människorättsligt utifrån frågan, om individuella fri- och rättigheter kan skyddas mot nationell praxis och politiska intentioner. Den metodologiska utgångspunkten tas i en variant av diskursanalys, där begreppet vanmakt, i form av nationens kollektiva vanmakt som reaktion på bieffekten av goda intentioner, ersätter det i sammanhanget mer vanliga begreppet makt i form av dolda maktfaktorer som förklaring (kapitel 2). Fördelen med detta synsätt är, att den kollektiva vanmakten, i motsats till den dolda makten, har ett ansikte. Ansiktet är välviljan som, i mer eller mindre uttalad desperation, tar sig kollektivt uttryck i det som blir nationens sammanhållande politiska sfär och nationella identitet. På så sätt tydliggörs, eller närmast avtäcks, också de olika aktörernas roller. Uppsatsen utmynnar i slutsatsen, att urvalsprocesserna i samband med tvångssteriliseringar i Sverige mellan åren 1935-1975 på en konceptuell nivå, betraktade utifrån idén med kollektiv vanmakt, är analoga med de urvalsprocesser som idag används vad gäller särskilt stöd i skolan på så sätt, att urvalsprocesserna identifierar och definierar barnens stödbehov baserat på målstyrda betygskrav som, i stil med New Public Management, enbart avspeglar en simulerad konkurrenssituation ämnad att utgöra ett mått på arbetsförmåga (kapitel 5).

  • 2.
    Haid, Sara
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Från reproduktion till normreflektion: En intervjustudie om sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen på tre gymnasieskolor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how three high schools based in Stockholm organize their sex education. Do the schools meet the guidelines and policies for sex education or in which way do they not? The study is based on interviews with school staff and is analyzed through a new institutional theoretical perspective. According to the Swedish National Agency for Education, sex education overbridge various subjects; concepts like sexuality, equality, sex and relations are expressed in several high school curriculums. The Swedish National Agency for Education further explain that all teachers are affected by these questions, since it is related to the schools basic principles and values. The main result shows that the quality of sex education is dependent on the commitment from teachers, headmasters and students. Together they create certain norms, values and atmospheres which makes sex education to a very big challenge and sometimes a success. 

  • 3.
    Leden, Ida
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Från teori till praktik: En studie av utmaningar i det humanitära arbetet applicerade på arbetet med SRHR och unga kvinnor i Cox's Bazar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the discrepancies between theory and practice when it comes to humanitarian interventions in refugee camps. In order to contextualize the result it will be applied onto the work with sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and young women in the world’s biggest refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The research questions are as follow: What discrepancy does relief worker experience when it comes to theory and practice in humanitarian interventions in refugee camps?; what kind of difficulties and challenges do relief workers meet in their work in refugee camps and how do they prepare?; what is the best way to work with SRHR questions and young women in the refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh?

    The study is built on interviews with five relief workers from western relief organizations. In order to be able to answer the three research questions, the interviews focused on the following themes; discrepancies of theory and practice; use of theoretical guidelines like The Sphere Handbook; difficulties during humanitarian interventions in refugee camps; and lessons learned. Some of the respondents had experience from Cox’s Bazar and/or SRHR and were therefor asked questions due to that specific experience.

    Conclusions to be drawn from the results of the interviews are that it is possible to prepare one self to work in humanitarian conditions but only to a certain extent. Relief workers do need a great deal of experience but there will always be unexpected situations impossible to prepare for. It’s also clear that some basic methods, such as actually talking to the people in need and not only acting on previous experiences, still need to be highlighted. In the specific context of Cox’s Bazar and SRHR questions, relief workers need to understand the culture in order to pursue their work in a suitable way. SRHR questions are for example highly stigmatized and the women’s previous knowledge about their own body is in general very low. 

  • 4.
    Svensson Dunberg, Paula
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Har EU det som krävs för att skydda de mänskliga rättigheterna?: En studie om artikel 7 i Fördraget om den Europeiska Unionen.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) is based on the inclusive core values ​​of democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights enshrined in article 2 of the Treaty of the European Union. If there is a risk that these values ​​are systematically threatened within a member state or when breaches are a fact, the EU may act by applying legal and political mechanisms. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the problem with EU member states abandoning the democratic principles in favor of the illiberal, as exemplified by a case study on Hungary whose constitution and national identity are based on exclusionary values, which consequently has implications for human rights. The main focus of the thesis is the article 7 procedure which has a sanctioning mechanism that may result in the member state concerned being wholly or partly deprived of its voting rights in the Council of the European Union. Article 7 has been criticized for being ineffective and too political. In September 2018, the European Parliament adopted a resolution which activated the preventive mechanism of the procedure against Hungary which is about deciding whether there is a risk of breaches of article 2. The main ambition of the study is to discuss to what extent article 7 can protect the EU's core values. For these purposes, a jurisprudence method that examines EU law has been applied and, through a political science approach, the application of article 7 against Hungary has been investigated. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the procedure, a field study trip was made to the European Parliament in Brussels, where interviews were conducted with people with insight into the work of Parliament and the Council. I was also given the opportunity to attend a meeting of the Committee of Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs of the European Parliament, in which representatives of the European Commission and the European Union Council also participated. The theme for the discussion was the article 7 procedure against Hungary. The findings of the survey show that, due to the political nature, article 7 is not sufficiently capable of protecting the fundamental values ​​of the EU. What is needed is a new independent mechanism to review all member states' compliance with democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

  • 5.
    Svensson, Sanne
    University College Stockholm.
    Flickors rättigheter är mänskliga rättigheter: Världssamfundets (o)förmåga att skydda flickor associerad med väpnad styrka2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to inspect how international law tends to exclude girls’ as holder of their rights, when they are associated with armed conflict. From the view of a legal approach, different terms in conventions- optional- and additional protocols have interprets and systematizes to make de lege lata for girls’ in international law able to establish. From the theoretical sight of formal and substantial equality, which assume that equal rights do not function in a world build on the structure of a male, the research of the study shows a number of terms within international law that tends to exclude girls as holders of their rights. The result shows that those terms due to social construction, which express the differences between girls and boys, is overlooked in the international lege lata. The result makes therefore the male standard of the terms advantage for boys.

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