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  • 1.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Act as a Christ-believer, as a household member or as both?: a cognitive perspective on the relationship between the social identity in Christ and household identities in Pauline and deutero-Pauline texts2008In: Identity formation in the New Testament / [ed] Bengt Holmberg and Mikael Winninge, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008, p. 141-161Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Behaving as a Christ‐Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the understanding of how first century Christ-believers, particularly those who shared the imagination of Ephesians, experienced the relation between their social identity as Christ-believers and behavior norms. In order to understand this, a number of theories from the cognitive sciences are used in combination with historical-critical methods. After a theoretical survey of relevant cognitive theories and discussions about the epistemological problems of using cognitive theories on historical texts, the theories are used to understand a) how Ephesians imagines the relation between identity and behavior norms and b) the potential group dynamic effects of this imagination. The result is a demonstration of how Ephesians is able to create a coherent narrative, beginning with God’s agency and ending with behavior (norms), and facilitating psychological and group dynamic effects such as intergroup distinction, selfesteem, cognitive certainty and consensus among group members, intragroup cooperation, moral judgment and nclusion/marginalization, motivation to remain committed and, last but not least, a sense of capacity and obligation to act morally.

  • 3.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Behaving as a Christ-Believer: A Cognitive Perspective on Identity and Behavior Norms in Ephesians2011Book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Behaving like a Christ-believer: a cognitive perspective on identity and behavior norms in the early Christ-movement2008In: Exploring early Christian identity / [ed] Bengt Holmberg, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Roitto, Rikard
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Dangerous but contagious altruism: recruitment of group members and reform of cooperation style through altruism in two modified versions of Hammond and Axelrod’s simulation of ethnocentric cooperation2016In: Religion, Brain & Behavior, ISSN 2153-599X, E-ISSN 2153-5981, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 154-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility of recruiting other agents to one's own kind and changing their cooperation style to one's own through altruistic generosity in a simulation. This is done by modifying Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod's well-known simulation, which shows that ethnocentric behavior is the most successful strategy in a spatialized game of cooperation where color is the only attribute that agents can act on. Their simulation is altered in two steps. First, the simulation is changed so that each agent can “recruit” neighboring agents to its own color with a low probability R through out-group altruism toward non-cooperative out-group members. If recruitment is successful, there is also a probability M that the converted agent “morally reforms,” that is, changes cooperation style to the cooperative agent's style. The result is that the strategy of altruism can successfully compete with ethnocentric strategies if it leads to recruitment around 1–2% of the time, and a change of cooperation style to altruism around 0.4–0.5% of the time. Second, the simulation is altered so that only agents of one color, green, can recruit the other colors through altruism. The most obvious result of this simulation is that agents of this group become increasingly dominant with an increasing probability of recruitment. More interesting is that the overall proportion of altruists decreases and ethnocentrism becomes more dominant as a cooperation strategy compared to the first modified simulation, although not as dominant as in the original simulation by Hammond and Axelrod. That is, green can dominate the board through recruitment of other colors even though only some of the green agents are “proselytizing” altruists. The simulations have bearing on (1) how altruistic behavior spreads through cultural transmission in a population and (2) the historical problem of why apparently self-destructive behaviors of generosity and non-self-defense toward out-group individuals seems to have contributed to the expansion of religious movements in certain historical periods.

  • 6.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Practices of confession, intercession, and forgiveness in 1 John 1.9; 5.162012In: New Testament Studies, ISSN 0028-6885, E-ISSN 1469-8145, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 235-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1 John 1.9 and 5.16 reflect practices of public confession of sins, intercession, and mediation of God's forgiveness. Divine forgiveness and belonging to the community were integrated in the Johannine community to the extent that one equalled the other. Therefore, these practices had important group-dynamic functions for the Johannine community. First, public confession functioned as a costly signal that deterred less committed group members but was meaningful to committed group members. Second, the practice of intercession induced role taking, allowing the offended party both to empathize with the offender and to restore his or her dignity and honour.

  • 7.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Reintegrative Shaming and a Prayer Ritual of Reintegration in Matthew 18:15-202014In: Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, ISSN 1100-2298, Vol. 79, p. 95-123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Review of Pyysiäinen, Ilkka‏. Religion, economy, and cooperation.2013In: Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion, ISSN 2049-7555, E-ISSN 2049-7563, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 244-245Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Review of Trebilco, Paul. Self-designations and group identity in the New Testament.2013In: Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok, ISSN 1100-2298, Vol. 78, p. 267-269Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Roitto, Rikard
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    The polyvalence of α͗φίημι and the two cognitive frames of forgiveness in the synoptic gospels2015In: Novum Testamentum, ISSN 0048-1009, E-ISSN 1568-5365, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 136-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on whether God or a human is the forgiving agent in the Synoptic Gospels (and beyond), the verb valence of ἀφίημι, “forgive,” differs in several ways. The present article argues that the differences are reflections in linguistic conventions of the cognition that only God can remove the substance of sin, while both God and humans can remit the moral debt of sin. Construction grammar, a linguistic theory which assumes that syntax and semantics are inseparable, is used in the analysis. Theological implications are discussed.

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