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  • 1.
    Almén, Lovisa
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Mentorskap: - I vilken mening kan mentorskap förebygga ohälsa bland pastorer i Equmeniakyrkan?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har genom denna studie undersökt mentorskapets påverkan för pastorer i Equmeniakyrkan. Frågeställningarna arbetet utgår från handlar om ifall mentorskap kan bidra till en mer hälsosam arbetssituation för pastorer. Som metod har jag utgått från en kortare enkät samt strukturerade intervjuer av fem pastorer och två mentorer. Jag använder mig av två teorier, Töres Theorell och Robert Karaseks krav-, kontroll- och stödmodell samt Kathy E. Krams teori om karriärsrelaterat mentorskap och psykosocialt mentorskap. Uppsatsens slutsats lyder att forskning samt intervjuerna pekar på att mentorskap främjar pastorers hälsa.

  • 2.
    Alrifai, Diala
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    KRIGSPROPAGANDA: Analytisk studie om Bashar Al-Assads propaganda under det syriska upproret 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing Syrian conflict is one of the most violent, bloody and complex conflicts that broke out in modern time. The Syrian people were inspired by the Arab spring, where popular demonstrations and peaceful protests demanded freedom and democracy. The Syrian regime declared that Syria is in a serious war against terrorism.

    This essay will try to analyze the Syrian president Bashar Al-Assad’s propaganda during the revolution against his government in March 2011. The analysis will go through a few of Al-Assad’s speeches and interviews during the Syrian uprising between 2011 and 2012. The study will be based on several fundamental researches that explain the relationship between the Syrian regime and the jihadi Islam in many dimensions before and after 2011. The study will answer the following question: How has the Syrian regime used fight terrorism as propaganda to serve its own political interest during the Syrian uprising 2011?

    In my study, I use argumentation analysis as a method, this method is used to assess the credibility and sustainability of text or politics in context. In an argued text, the author aims to convince the reader of something in a critical and reasonable manner of argument. The method used is both descriptive and appreciative of Bashar Al-Assad’s arguments.

    The study concluded that Al-Assad from the beginning of his presidency has played a major role of producing Islamists to achieve his own political objectives in the region and was able to take advantage of them while trying to crackdown the Syrian revolution in 2011 through many political acts.

  • 3.
    Annehed, Christoph
    University College Stockholm. Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Hur ord manar till handling: Ett organisationskulturellt perspektiv på Matteus grupp, liknelsetal och liknelser om himmelriket.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis is to understand how theories of organizational culture canenrich our understanding of Matthew’s group, his parable speech and the parables of thekingdom of heaven. I argue that Matthew edited and constructed the parable speech to fit hisintentions so that he could call for righteous behavior from the members of his group. I thenargue that the parable speech can be viewed as a regulatory document that addresses externalproblems of adaption and internal problems of integration that Matthew’s group had to face.I also argue that the parables of the kingdom of heaven are related to externaland internal problems and that the parables can be understood as artifacts that express thepreferred behavior applied by the leaders of Matthew’s group.My conclusion is that the theories of organizational culture give us a betterunderstanding of the complex situation of Matthew’s group and that the parable speech isrelated to these issues and addresses the group. It can therefore be considered a regulatorydocument. The parables of the kingdom of heaven can be understood as stories that call forrighteous behavior and persuade the Jewish people to join Matthew’s group through followingthe law according to view held by Matthew’s group.

  • 4.
    Astudillo, Jacob
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Unitas Spiritualis: An Analysis of Thomas Aquinas’ Participatory Biblical Exegesis of Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Beaulier, Aniella
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    The best place to be young and a female: a study about gender equality in Rwanda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fältstudiens syfte har varit att analysera och beskriva jämställdhets effekter på den unga generationen i dagens Rwanda. Min uppsats utfördes med en kvalitativ ansats där intervjuer har varit centrala som metod för att samla in mitt material och data. Jag har intervjuat unga vuxna kvinnor som är entreprenör eller i ledare position. Mitt resultat erhålls genom deras berättelser och upplevelser om jämställdheten i Rwanda.

    Rwanda har haft en stor representation av kvinnor i parlamentet vilket har i sin tur påverkat dessa unga kvinnor. Genom mina intervjuer har jag kommit fram till att Kvinnor i Rwanda tar mer plats som aldrig förr. Sammanfattningsvis har Rwanda gjort en stor skillnad för deras kvinnor. Den stora representationen av kvinnor i höga positioner har haft en bra inverkan på nästa generation och har inspirerat dem att drömma stort. Även om Rwanda har kommit långt när det gäller jämställdhet, utmaningar finns fortfarande och hela arbetet är inte gjort.

  • 6.
    Botros, Claudia Cleopatra
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Korruption i Afrika: En studie om anti-korruptionsarbete och utvecklingsbistånd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Korruption är ett allvarligt problem som har många negativa effekter på samhällets olika sektorer, därför måste korruption i all dess form bekämpas. De länder som är mest drabbade av korruption är Somalia och Sydsudan. Korruptionen i bland annat dessa länder samt ett flertal andra länder i Afrika har lett till långvariga problem, inte minst för personer som redan har en relativt låg levnadsstandard. Trots anti-korruptionsarbeten och utvecklingsbistånd, existerar korruption fortfarande och dess konsekvenser tenderar att förvärras. Denna undersökning diskuterar faktorer som ligger till grund för korruption och sätter dem i relation till anti-korruptionarbete och utvecklingsbistånd, för att söka svar på varför korruption inte bekämpas.  

  • 7.
    Botros, Jessica
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Polisvåld mot afroamerikaner: En analys av teorier från ett människorättsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Polisvåld mot afroamerikaner är ett stort problem i USA. Våldet är ett tydligt rasistiskt uttryckgentemot en specifik grupp i samhället som utsätts oproportionerligt, vilket innebär att derasrättigheter inskränks. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka faktorer som ligger till grund förpolisvåldet mot afroamerikaner i USA samt hur våldet påverkar deras rättigheter. Fokus i dennastudie ligger på två teorier som hävdar att det är olika psykologiska och politiska faktorer, samtrasistiska strukturer som ligger till grund för polisvåldet.Polisvåld är ingenting som endast påverkar enstaka individer, utan har en indirekt/direkt påverkanpå alla afroamerikaner. Detta innebär att även de personer som inte utsätts för fysiskt våld kanpåverkas på ett psykiskt sätt, vilket har en stor påverkan på hälsan.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Petra
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Foucault, art, and radical theology: the mystery of things2019Book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Petra
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Hur öppna är vi egentligen?: mystik politik från Cusanus till Fogelklou2013In: Religionens offentlighet : om religionens plats i samhället, Vol. S. 307-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Petra
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Mysticism as revolt: Foucault, Deleuze, and theology beyond representation2014Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlsten, Thorbjörn
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Bortom skillnad: Läran om trikāya (”tre kroppar”) i māhāyāna-buddhismen  som modell för en transcenderande religionsteologi för  dual buddhist-kristen religionsidentitet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a try to present the Trikāya doctrine in Māhāyāna Buddhism as a model for a transcending theology that can help those who are living with a “dual Buddhist-Christian religious identity” to overcome conflicts between Buddhism and Christianity. By the Trikāya doctrine we can reach a deeper understanding of the mystical awakening to “Buddha beyond Buddha” (or “God beyond God” as some of the mystics tried to explain); i.e. the transpersonal Dharma and the transpersonal Logos beyond the limited individuals of Gautama and Jesus who both fully realized God as spiritual qualities in body, speech, actions and mind. The point is that we do not need to choose between the Buddha or Christ; instead we can look at them both as living examples of the realization of what Paul Tillich called the “Ultimate Concern” and “Being”.  And probably we can use this model for most religions. 

  • 12.
    Dahl, Johanna
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Vilka bilder får man egentligen dela på sociala media?: - Om sociala media, delande av bilder och personlig integritet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to determine current legal status as to whether it is allowed to share or upload images on social media without asking for permission. The thesis has examined whether an image shared on social media can be a personal data, legally speaking. The legislation about this subject is spread in different laws, which make it difficult to determine what is allowed to do and not. Furthermore, a survey on Facebook investigated the extent to which people share photos on Facebook without asking the people in the photo. The result showed that a lot of people shares pictures without asking permission if they know the person in the photo. If the participants did not know the person, they did not share the photo to the same extent. The participant also answered the question how well they thought they knew about the legislation regarding personal data, surveillance and crime. Half of the participant estimated that they knew about the legislation.    

  • 13.
    Dahlström, Anders
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Med segerhjärtat kämpa mitt livs kamp: Omvändelseberättelser i baptistisk årskrönika Betlehem kristlig kalender 1886 till 19802018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    That conversion is a central concept for Baptists and narrative an important part of their culture is made clear by Betlehem kristlig kalender, a yearbook published from 1886 to 1980.The aim of this thesis is to survey and analyse conversion narratives within the Baptist movement as reflected in Betlehem, by investigating what narrative expressions form the body of the stories, what is given precedence, emotional or cognitive expressions, their soul, and finally what theological themes are developed around the concept of conversion.The method employed is, following a reading of all the issues of Betlehem, to distinguish and extract the stories that are narrative in character according to Hindmarsh’s criteria. That is to say, stories that point beyond the individual to a larger principle of meaningfulness and that are powerfully thought-provoking, with a sense that their beginning, middle and end form a unified whole. The texts extracted are further analysed to find the distinguishing characteri-stics of the material in the light of the dissertation’s aim.The results of the study show that the narratives in Betlehem contain a good deal of drama. They have a clear direction from something to something, with the actual conversion forming a climax. The darkest situations are transformed, following a struggle, to the most ethereal light when morning comes, bringing peace and assurance that conversion has taken place. Women often serve as models, having already experienced conversion. It is their husbands and sons who are the object of their attention and are led towards conversion by their entreaties, arguments and also tears. Salvation, as the experience was often called, clearly changes people’s personalities. Following conversion, individuals take greater responsibility for their own and their family’s situation and it is not unusual that, in their new lives, they start to tell others of their experience.The narratives in Betlehem show a marked preponderance of the emotional over the cognitive for the first 60 years, up to the 1950s, when feelings make way for reason and good examples. One reason for this change could be that the instantaneous conversion of revivalism is replaced with an emphasis on a rational, planned decision and commitment. Another reason could be the ecumenical realities of the time, with church membership based on baptism rather than a confession of faith. The cognitive aspects, as well as postmodernism’s loss of belief in metanarratives, may be mentioned as further possible explanations.The Baptist process of conversion, its “golden chain”, interpreted through the constitution of the first Baptist church in Borekulla and the Betlehem narratives, can be defined as anthropocentric and summed up as comprising the following stages: (1) The individual is awakened from their indifference and realises their sinfulness. (2) The individual senses a danger in their sinful state and turns to God. (3) The individual accepts Jesus Christ in faith and receives forgiveness and assurance. (4) Faith is brought to life in transformative discipleship. The theology of conversion broadly follows those of other revivalist groups.

  • 14.
    Dalfors, William
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Det ”sekulära” Sverige?: En kvalitativ studie av begreppet sekularisering i relation till det postkristna svenska folket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often described as being one of the more secular nations in the world by various surveys and sources, but how true is this statement? In this paper I examine what has been said on the topic of secularization in Sweden by leading sociologists in the field and then in turn analyze this information in order to finally reach a conclusion of my own. My intention with this bachelor’s thesis is to shine a light on the relationship between what has come to be described as the ”post-christian” population by sociologist David Thurfjell and the process of secularization on an individual level.The two questions that form the basis for this paper are: ” Is the swedish population as secular/non-believing as it’s claimed to be?” and “Has there been a shift in the form the Christian religion takes on an individual level and if so what can this new shape then possibly look like?”.The result of the analysis indicates that the swedish population might not be as secular as it is often put forward as being. While the church-oriented religion that the Church of Sweden represents might be losing traction amongst the post-Christian population, this does not necessarily mean religion as a whole is in a gradual decline in swedish society. The information presented herein points towards a possible shift in swedish society from a mainly church-oriented form of religion to a more privatized version sometimes described as the invisible religion.

  • 15.
    Daytabar, Nasiba
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Mänskliga rättigheter i det afghanska familjelivet i Sverige.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om afghanska familjelivet i Sverige och ska visa vilken bild afghaner visar i det nya samhället gällande mänskliga rättigheter. Det utförs genom att afghaner i Sverige får svara på frågor gällande hur kvinnor och män ser på sina roller i familjen i nya samhället, samt hur de ser på barnets uppfostran. Metoden som uppsatsen är baserad på är en kvalitativ forskning och Georgs Simmels teori om främling har tillämpats i studien. Denna studie är bestående av tio semistrukturerade intervjuer med afghaner som bor i Stockholm. Av intervjuerna framgår att afghaner har olika uppfattning om familjelivet i Sverige och beroende på personer har de antingen blivit integrerade eller inte i det nya samhället. I studien framkommer att intervjupersoner har samma mönster som de har från hemlandet som det leder till kulturkrock i nya samhället. Det visar att afghaner bor ett kollektivt samhälle fast de bor i ett individualistiskt land, det finns skillnader värderingar och enligt Simmels teori kan man säga att är afghaner fysiskt i Sverige och psykiskt i hemlandet.

  • 16.
    Dedic, Arnele
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Erbjuder Norrköpings kommun full delaktighet i samhället på lika villkor?: -En kandidatuppsats om fysisk tillgänglighet gällande personer med funktionsnedsättning i Norrköpings kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the various accessibilities for people with disabilities in the relatively large municipality named Norrköping, Sweden. I’ve chosen to focus on how a group of people comprehend the accessibilities for people with disabilities in this municipality. The framing question that I’ve issued is; How is the physical accessibility for disabled individuals secured in Norrköping and how is the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities complied? To answer this, I’ll use the following two methods; literature studies and interviews/field surveys. In the first, I highlight relevant literature and in the second I investigate what views the municipality, along with 20 randomly selected women and 20 randomly selected men, have on the accessibilities for individuals with disabilities in Norrköping. The results of this study is based on the interviews of 20 men and 20 women in different ages. The interviews were made through surveys that were answered outside of the Campus in Norrköping. These results of the survey answers are presented in bar graphs. I chose to categorize men and women aged 18-30years and +31 to see what different competence levels there are on the physical accessibilities in Norrköping. Based on the survey I could see that, despite the age, the majority thought that there are gaps where the physical accessibilities in Norrköping is of shortage. My study shows that Norrköping has come a long way with the physical accessibilities, but not enough to state that people with disabilities have a full participation in the society.

  • 17.
    Eberstein, Hanna
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Var går gränsen?: En politisk filosofisk argumentationsanalys om gränser, människor och mänskliga rättigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What are borders? Walls, fences, barbed wires, sovereignty markers, nationalities, symbols, cultures, religions, skin colours, prejudices… Where are borders? In reality, in jurisdiction, in our minds, on maps, in citizenship, inside our bodies, in our gaze… What do borders do? Define, separate, exclude, include, discriminate, hurt, rape, reduce…

    The concept of borders is complex and it represents paradoxes such as visible - invisible, reinforcing - weakening, inclusion - exclusion and legal - illegal. In this essay borders are treated from a political philosophical perspective with arguments drawn mainly from the theorists Étienne Balibar, Wendy Brown and Shahram Khosravi. The case is analysed and illustrated by empirical data from mass media reporting. Borders, both visible and invisible, contain a powerful symbolism and affect us as individuals, groups and society. Discussing borders makes weaknesses of the human rights system visible. Borders might affect people's ability to gain access to universal human rights. Where and why do we mark borders and who gets be in or out?

  • 18.
    Edlundh, Molly
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    HBTQI-personer och asylprocessen: En queerteoretisk granskning av Migrationsverkets ställningstaganden gällande bedömningen av HBTQI-personers rätt till asyl2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to do a qualitative content analysis, with queer theory as a starting point, of the Swedish Migration Agency’s judicial stance regarding the procedure of assessing reliability and credibility as well as judicial stance regarding the investigation and examination of the forthcoming risk of persons claiming protection due to sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expressions. To conduct this analysis one research question were formulated: How can one from a theoretical perspective analyze the Swedish Migration Agency's method of assessing whether a person is likely to belong to the LGBTQI group? The study’s theoretical theorems are cumulated from Fanny Ambjörnsson’s book ”What is queer?” and six categories and themes were chosen to use as tools during the content analysis of the selected judicial stances. These six categories and themes are; the value of the language, the desire or the habit of classifying people, normalization, heteronormativity, silence and visibility as well as stereotyping. The study showed that comprise criticism can be directed towards the Swedish Migration Agency's method of assessing whether a person is likely to belong to the LGBTQI group and towards the procedure of assessing a asylum seekers reliability and credibility.

  • 19.
    Egberg, Nils
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Kyrkan och klimathotet: Textanalytisk studie av sex kyrkliga dokument om miljö och klimat2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A text analytical study has been performed using an abductive approach. The initial study was inductive and followed by a deductive part. Six different documents were studied representing protestant Churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church (Patriarchate of Constantinople)2.The initial inductive part showed that the Church in its handling of the climate crises ought to be able to help people to a better understanding of the climate changes as well as to an understanding of the Churches´ theological view on the relationships between God and man, man to man and God to Creation.The deductive part of the study the documents showed a picture of a panentheistic, good and personal God. God was mainly referred to as a nonsexual entity. This part of the study also showed that all documents agree that the Church has a responsibility to ensure that moral values are respected when it comes to decision-making regarding actions against the climate changes. It is the task of the Church to channel the love of God to people and to the whole Creation.The climate changes have prompted the Churches to partly concentrate on their theology on creation and have caused a reevaluation of their positon in handling the new environmental situation. The major part of the documents gave a view on the theological reflection that the climate changes have forced upon the Churches.All documents regarded the threatening climate changes as a consequence of the human misuse of God’s Creation. Man has not fulfilled God’s expectations of man’s care for his Creation.Human beings are unique in God’s Creation, man is the image of God. In some respects human beings are God’s coworkers or even co-creators. But man has not managed to match God’s expectations, and has not cared for his Creation in the way he wanted. God is in a way mourning the situation that man has caused and what is threatening his Creation.The documents indicated that all Churches have a similar view on the human responsibility to try to restore balance in the Creation. Since their common view is that man, on God’s behalf, has the responsibility to care for and develop Creation, the Churches have the duty to work for a change of human lifestyle in a way that is compatible with a sustainable development.The documents indicated that the Church wants to be a forerunner in the change of lifestyle and also wants to work for a more just world order where those rich in resources should contribute the most to cover the costs for a worldwide handling of the climate crises and for the formation of a sustainable development.

  • 20.
    Ekholm Tysk, Stina
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Maskulinitet och eskatologi: Maskulinitet som ett retoriskt grepp för att tala om eskatologi i Första Korinthierbrevet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I 1 Kor 7 skriver Paulus om relationer, sex och äktenskap. Kapitlet präglas av att inkludera kvinnor i resonemangen och feministteologer som Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza har fokuserat på att förstå kvinnans roll i texten.1 Men vad händer om man läser texten utifrån att den är skriven av en man? Fredrik Ivarsson har visat hur Paulus använder en så kallad maskulinitetsretorik i 1 Kor 7 för att tala om etik i församlingen.2 1 Kor 7 berör även eskatologi. I samma utläggning om huruvida ogifta ska gifta sig skriver Paulus om den allt mer annalkande återkomsten av Kristus. Hur kan eskatologin i 1 Kor 7 förstås utifrån samma utgångspunkt som Ivarsson har, att Paulus språk och retorik formats av antikens kulturspecifika föreställningar av manlighet?

  • 21.
    Eksmyr, Maria
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Suveränitet, veto och erga omnes- käppar i hjulet?: Ett studie av konflikten i Syrien utifrånde lega lata, de lega ferenda, de lega interpretata.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seven long years of conflict in Syria with humanitarian catastrophe as consequence.The UN and the blocked Security Council, with the inability to address the deteriorating political andhumanitarian situation in Syria, actualizes the former Secretary-General Kofi Annan's words beforethe General Assembly in 2000:"... if humanitarian intervention is, indeed, an unacceptable assault on sovereignty, how should werespond to a Rwanda, to a Srebrenica - to gross and systematic violations of human rights thataffect every prescription of our common humanity?"From the Cold War until today, the UN system has failed to live up to the high expectations basedon the fundamental principles of the Charter and international law, which can be attributed to theimbalance between the General Assembly and the Security Council, as well as within the Councilbetween the five permanent members with individual veto and the chosen six.The question is not new. The tension in power balance and decision-making in the UN has existedsince the organization's formation. Interestingly in this context, the resolution Uniting for Peace,which was adopted in 1950, has as its starting point the unrestricted power of veto in relation to theGeneral Assembly's responsibility for peace and security.The resolutions Responsibility to Protect and Uniting for Peace become important and necessaryfor the understanding of the conflict in Syria, but also for a reform work motivated by humanitarianlaw. The meaning of the concepts of sovereignty, veto and erga omnes is therefore decisive in thebalance between de lege lata and de lege ferenda, with can be clarified by de lege interpretata.This essay will try to make the connection between these concepts more intelligible.

  • 22.
    Fahlgren, Sune
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Vatten är tjockare än blod: en baptistisk kulturhistoria2015Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Fahlgren, Sune
    et al.
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Ideström, Jonas
    Svenska kyrkans forskningsenhet.
    Ecclesiology in the trenches: theory and method under construction2015Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Fakhro, Nadin Faisal
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Ett mångdimensionellt maktperspektiv av unga mäns maskulinitet inom en hederskultur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about masculinity and society with a focus on the consequences of masculinity in a culture of honour. The framing questions in this thesis are the following two; - What consequences does the masculine inheritance inherit in the culture of honour for boys and young men who grow up in socially vulnerable areas? - How are their feelings of confidence in the future affected and what ways they see as open in life and in society? I have chosen to use methods of group interviews with five guys and young men in a segregated area in Stockholm. During these interviews, I assumed Yvonne Hirdman's theories about the gender system. I chose to ask questions to express the boys' perception of how they perceive themselves and indirectly their views on honour, equality and sexuality. The interview results showed that young people experience stigmatisation, they lack a future trust and feel that they are excluded from the majority of society. I realised that it was not enough to explain the culture of honour as only a cultural phenomenon, it also lacked a multi- dimensional power perspective.

  • 25.
    Figaro, Jenny
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Jona psalm: dess teologi och funktion i Jona bok2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jona bok är inte bara en av Bibelns mest välkända berättelser utan är också en del avvärldslitteraturen. I den bibliska uppdelningen tillhör boken de så kallade skriftprofeterna ochtolkas således som en profetisk text. Trots detta skiljer sig boken från Gamla testamentetsövriga skriftprofeter då Jona bok snarare är en berättelse om en profet än en samling avprofetens ord (Andersson et al. 2003:163; Childs 1979:422). Dessutom kallas Jona aldrigprofet i boken och hans uppdrag är inte att predika för Israel utan för invånarna i denMesopotamiska staden Nineve. Detta är något som Jona motsätter sig vilket resulterar i ettmisslyckat flyktförsök från Gud och slutligen Bibelns kortaste och mest effektiva predikan(Nogalski 2018:210). Till skillnad från övriga skriftprofeter så är berättelsen dessutom skriveni prosaform istället för småprofeternas igenkännande poesi, med undantag för 2:3-10 vilket ären psalm (Achtemeier 1996:255). Inbrytandet av denna psalm har i forskningen kring Jonabok varit mycket omdiskuterad, och det är om denna psalm som min uppsats kommer atthandla.

  • 26.
    Floberg, Maja
    Stockholm School of Theology.
    Syföreningens gåvopraktiker: - en exempelstudie av två syföreningar i Betlehemskyrkans Missionsförsamling Göteborg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Flyman, Hampus
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Kristenblivande: Fallstudium av sex växande församlingar i Equmeniakyrkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie avser att undersöka vilka faktorer i församlingars arbete och människors bakgrund som bidrar till kristenblivande. Sex Equmeniaförsamlingar som välkomnat många nya medlemmar på bekännelse, det vill säga medlemmar som blivit medlemmar i en församling för första gången, undersöks genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med församlingarnas föreståndare. Vilka praktiker, kvaliteter och erfarenheter bidrar enligt församlingsföreståndarna till att människor blir kristna och går med i en församling? Resultatet analyseras och diskuteras med hjälp av deprivationsteorin, praktiskt-teologiska mönster för kristenblivande och tidigare forskning. Studien pekar på att de praktiker som bidrar till kristenblivande är kontaktskapande, diakonalt arbete, undervisning om kristen tro, attraktiva gudstjänster och praktiker förbekännelse och bekräftelse av tro. Kvaliteter som verkar bidra är en välkomnande öppenhet kombinerat med tydlighet om Jesus och evangeliet. De människor som kommer till tro har ofta bakgrund med någon form av deprivation. Kristenblivandet är i flera fall en process som pågår över tid även för dem som har tydliga avgörelsetillfällen. Kontakt med kristna personer som har bjudit med till församlingarnas mötesplatser tycks i flera fall ha varit avgörande förkristenblivandet.

  • 28.
    Garphult, Lina
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Laget Sverige: En etnografisk studie av de människor som nekats sjukersättning av Försäkringskassan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to analyze claimants encounter with Swedish Social Insurance Agency (Försäkringskassan) drawing on theories of power. It investigates how this contact has affected the claimants’ view of themselves as contributing citizens. The study has mainly focused on the experiences of assessments for sickness benefit claims as well as the interaction with case officers during the proceedings. The study found that the institutionalized power relations between the citizen and the agency were internalized by the informants. Specifically, it resulted in an altered sense of human worth and societal contribution. Informants described being distanced with regards to agency and society, and internalizing the perception of being a second class citizen. The study showed that the claimants’ experiences of the assessment proceedings led to feeling systematically marginalized by the state. The power influence the informants were subjected to by the agency, resulted in introverted as well as extroverted resistance and ultimately power reclaim. It is in part demonstrated through their participation in the study and their wish to bring the question to light.

  • 29.
    Granath, Felicia
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Yttrandefrihet kontra säkerhet: En kvalitativ studie av argumentationen kring nazisters närvaro i Almedalen 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the argumentation for the freedom of speech versus the right to safety was presented when these rights came in conflict with each other when a neo-Nazi organization was allowed to co-arrange Almedalen 2017. The material consists of press statements, debate articles and news articles where the arguments of four key agents connected to Almedalsveckan 2017 were collected. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, the argumentation is analyzed by answering three research questions: How did each agent present their argument? How did the argumentation rely on current law? How did the agents rely on the others’ rights claim? The argumentation is analyzed qualitatively through a normative theory in order to investigate how the claims were made for each right. The agents that claim freedom of speech are Region Gotland and the police. The agents that claim the right to safety are RFSL and Funktionsrätt Sverige together with the JAG Association. The argumentation is categorized thematically for each agent and every category is analyzed separately. The results show that both sides used emotionally charged arguments or affective language and both sides may be considered as lacking in concretization regarding the meaning of their main arguments. Both sides clearly relied on current law by either mentioning laws explicitly or implicitly. All of the agents made some statement about the other key agent’s position or responsibility. Both sides can be considered as having valid right claims by referring to intrinsic values and current law. In the end, Region Gotland and the police have the right to determine who is allowed to co-arrange Almedalen and can therefor decide which claimed rights that is prioritized in the value hierarchy. Furthermore, the study shows that each conflict of rights needs to be valued individually as the circumstances, consequences and claims are crucial for the determination of the hierarchy. For future research, I recommend investigating how the public opinion considers allowing or limiting neo-Nazi’s freedom of opinions, as well as investigating how the Swedish praxis regarding the application and restriction of freedom of opinions for neo-Nazi organizations and parties is carried.

  • 30.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Gunner, GöranUniversity College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Lutheran identity and political theology2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Gunner, Göran
    et al.
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Nordquist, Kjell-Åke
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    An unlikely dilemma: constructing a partnership between human rights and peace-building2011Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Haid, Sara
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Från reproduktion till normreflektion: En intervjustudie om sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen på tre gymnasieskolor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how three high schools based in Stockholm organize their sex education. Do the schools meet the guidelines and policies for sex education or in which way do they not? The study is based on interviews with school staff and is analyzed through a new institutional theoretical perspective. According to the Swedish National Agency for Education, sex education overbridge various subjects; concepts like sexuality, equality, sex and relations are expressed in several high school curriculums. The Swedish National Agency for Education further explain that all teachers are affected by these questions, since it is related to the schools basic principles and values. The main result shows that the quality of sex education is dependent on the commitment from teachers, headmasters and students. Together they create certain norms, values and atmospheres which makes sex education to a very big challenge and sometimes a success. 

  • 33.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Biskop Lewi Pethrus: Biografi över ett ledarskap. Religion och mångfald i det svenska folkhemmet.2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Evangelicals, Practices, and the Univocity of Being: Avoiding the Pitfall of Gnosticism2014In: Between the State and the Eucharist: Swedish Theology in Conversation with William T. Cavanaugh / [ed] Joel Halldorf, Fredrik Wenell, Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014, 1, p. 68-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The argument of this chapter is that the evangelical ideals of simplicity and spontaneity are rooted in a univocal understanding of being. If there is only one kind of being, which God and creation are imagined toshare, then God cannot be thought of as present in and through created matter but rather instead of it. Thus the tendency in the Free churches and Evangelicalism in general to perceive complex practices and materiality as competing with God’s presence, as well as to favor simplicity and spontaneity.But the reluctance towards practices has resulted in an inability to withstand the cultural pressures of modernity. As a consequence Evangelicalism has turned into a mirror image of secular modernity. Furthermore, skepticism towards the material and a preference for authenticity is theologically problematic since it is, as this chapter will demonstrate, akin to a Gnostic worldview.

  • 35.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Inte allena: Varför Luthers syn på nåden, Bibeln och tron inte räcker2017Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Med Jesus i moderniteten: Etiska, andliga och apokalyptiska modernitetsvisioner i den svenska väckelsen2017In: En annan riktning framåt: Modernitetskritik i Sverige under det långa 1800-talet / [ed] Joel Halldorf & Andreas Hedberg, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2017, 1, p. 49-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Mångfalden byggde Sverige2017Book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Religion och våld: Om destruktiva generalisering och den konstruktiva komplexiteten2016In: Ickevåldets vägare: Fred i terrorns tid / [ed] Joel Halldorf, Bitte Hammargren, Isak Svensson, Sofia Walan, Örebro: Marcus förlag , 2016, 1, p. 103-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Storytellig and Evangelical Identities2017In: Spiritual and Ecclesiastical Biographies: Research, Results, and Readings / [ed] Anders Jarlert, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2017, 1, p. 128-139Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, I discuss autobiography in the Evangelical tradition, and how thisgenre can help us understand Evangelical identity. Conversion – the experience of“new birth”, or being born again – was the center of these stories. The emphasis on personalstorytelling (witnessing) united Evangelicals, but the way they told their storiesdivided them. As the movement grew more fragmented over the centuries, this patternbecomes more evident. Personal storytelling was part of what made this a modernmovement, but the way they told their stories set it apart as a distinct modernity.

  • 40.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Sök Babylons fred: Om kyrkans identitet och politiska engagemang2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Halldorf, Joel
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Läsarna i distraktionernas tid: Bibel, kyrka och den digitala revolutionen2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hedman, Lena
    University College Stockholm.
    Föräldrars rätt att välja skola för sitt barn.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om föräldrarnas rätt att välja skola för sitt barn. Enligt friskolereformen har föräldrarna rätt att välja den grundskola som det vill att deras barn ska gå i. Det kan vara en kommunal skola eller friskola. I Sverige pågått en debatt om de konfessionella friskolorna. Det har blivit en politisk fråga som handlar om konfessionella skolorna ska tillåtas eller inte. Ordet konfessionell innebär ”som avser trosbekännelsen; som strängt håller på trosbekännelsen”.[1] En skola som konfessionell har sin värdegrund i religion. De konfessionella skolorna är omtalade i Sverige genom att det öppet talar om religion. Sverige betraktas av omvärlden som en av världens mest sekulariserade stater. Ordet sekularisering innebär att ”processer som innebär att religionen förlorar i betydelse i ett samhälle”.[2] Även om Sverige under många hundra år var en religiös stat så har religionen under det senaste århundradet fått mindre mening i människors liv. Likväl har vi i Sverige tagit vissa aspekter ur olika religioner och utövar dem som yoga, meditation som härstammar från religion. Uppsatsen handlar om religiösa friskolor och Abram de Swaan menar att Samhällsvetenskapenhar människor i olika samlevnadsformer som sitt studieobjekt”.[3] Det som jag intresserad av är om religiösa friskolor och föräldrarnas rätt att välja skola för sina barn utifrån gällande lagar i Sverige och internationella konventioner. Anledningen till att detta är intressant att undersöka är att om man har en rätt i Sverige som innebär att föräldrarna har möjlighet att välja skola för sina barn så bör innebär alla skolor. Det som jag intresserad av är fått del av är varför föräldrarna valt en religiös friskola till sitt barn. Detta har gjort att jag mailat till rektorer för religiösa friskolor i Sverige. Det som är mitt syfte är fått del av på föräldrarnas aspekter som jag inte anser kommer fram i samhällsdebatten.

    [1] https://www.ordlista.se/ordbok/konfessionell

    [2] https://www.ne.se/uppslagsverk/encyklopedi/lång/sekularisering

    [3] De Swaan, Abram, (2004), s 88.

  • 43.
    Hermansson, Isabel
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Om rätten till sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa för män i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    1994 in Cairo United Nations Population and Development Fund held a conference where the attending 179 nations agreed that Sexual and reproductive health is a human right. Everyone is entitled to this right without distinction.

     

    This thesis investigates what covenants, declarations, policies, strategies and national law say about sexual and reproductive rights for men, specifically men in Sweden.

     

    The thesis aims to enlighten the reader about men’s situation in a welfare state where discriminatory structures in society is reproducing gender stereotypes in a country that is one of the most gender equal countries in the world.

     

    The general lack of common knowledge and subsequent lacking education in the matter is abundantly clear when browsing documents issued by official sources throughout the world. While Europe and its countries have begun to examine and call attention to this neglected subject, progress is still slow and could be hazardous to men’s sexual and reproductive health.

    The thesis concludes with an argument that Sweden have a discriminatory structure built in society that discriminate men and their right to sexual and reproductive health according to Discrimination Act 2008:567 by practices that appear to be neutral but can affect men in a negative way. 

  • 44.
    Holmblad, Carolin
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology. Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Hur uppstår nya sociala rörelser?: En kvalitativ fallstudie av den nya formen av spontan organisering genom informella nätverk som blev tongivande under flyktingmottagandet 20152018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker den spontana organisering genom informella nätverk som blev ett betydande inslag i Sveriges flyktingmottagande 2015. Utifrån en fallstudie av volontärer som är aktiva i organisationerna undersöker studien vilka motiv som ligger till grund för deras val att engagera sig utanför redan befintliga organisationer. Det huvudsakliga syftet med undersökningen är att studera huruvida den spontana formen av organisering bör betraktas som en ny social rörelse. Uppsatsens teoretiska ramverk utgår från teorier om hur sociala rörelser uppstår samt vad som utmärker mindre formell form av organisering. Sammanlagt genomfördes sju stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer med volontärer från organisationer registrerade i Sverige och som startade under flyktingmottagandet 2015. Bland organisationerna finns de med fokus på mottagandet i Sverige samt de med primärt internationellt fokus. Resultatet visar att volontärernas engagemang i den nya formen av organisering till stor del kan betraktas som en ny social rörelse med hänvisning till uppsatsens teoretiska ramverk.  

  • 45.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Maria från Magdala som uppståndelsevittne2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Jonsson, Petra
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Theology.
    Guds andedräkt ger liv: En jämförelse av begreppen neshama och ruach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte är att undersöka de hebreiska begreppen neshama och ruach och att jämför dessa med varandra.

    Neshama är ett sällsynt begrepp som bara används 24 gånger i den hebreiska bibeln. Ruach däremot är ett vanligt begrepp som används 378 gånger. Begreppen är delvis synonyma när de betecknar andedräkt, både Guds och människans andedräkt, och när de betecknar livskraft. Utöver detta har båda begreppen betydelser som inte täcks av det respektive andra begreppet: Neshama används t.ex. som kollektivbeteckning för varelser, det som andas, en betydelse som ruach inte har. Ruach däremot kan beteckna individuella andliga varelser, som lögnens ande, en betydelse som neshama inte har.

    I skapelsen är det endast människan som explicit får neshama men neshama kan också användas för djur om dessa följer människornas lott. Att djur kan ha ruach är obestridd. Uppsatsens analys visar att det finns tydliga tecken på att neshama bär på en association till antingen skapelsen eller till syndafloden, en association som ruach inte har. Dessutom visar uppsatsens analys att det finns indikationer att Jobs bok står i dialog med Jesajaboken. Och slutligen finns det ett kiastiskt mönster i användningen av ruach i Psaltaren som indikerar att psalm 77 och psalm 78 kan vara de centrala psalmerna i Psaltaren.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Rebecca
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    "Det kollektiva ansvaret": En kvalitativ studie om statens förebyggande åtgärder mot mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to identify possible means to improve governmental measures to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by men towards women. Qualitative interviews with nine non-governmental women shelters are conducted, as well as with a specialist within the field, with the aim of responding to the research’s purpose. Furthermore, The Gender Equality Unit at The Ministry of Social Affairs respond to the findings of the interviews. The main findings of the essay identify a lack of stability and continuity relating to governmental preventive measures. The importance of education and a lack of equality are factors being brought up in particular, in regards to the study’s purpose. The findings also highlight a problematical connection between violent forms of pornography, sexual violence and inequality

  • 48.
    Kalén, Lise
    University College Stockholm. Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Toxisk kolonialism: - uppfattningar om globalt ansvar, rättvisa och mänskligarättigheter i processen av en ändring av Baselkonventionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning of global responsibility and toxicwaste control. The Basel Convention is the UN's international regulations on the import, export andtransport of hazardous waste. According to the Basel Convention, the export of electronic waste todeveloping countries is fully legal if the recipient country has given approval in writing. Is there a linkbetween toxic colonialism, global responsibility, justice and human rights?Material/Method: A qualitative case study of what delegates from three African countries think abouttoxic colonialism and global responsibility.Main results: The essay gives an explanation of the concept of toxic colonialism in relation to the BaselConvention and the Ban Amendment, from three African UN delegates, furthermore an analysis of theimportance it can have on global responsibility, justice and views on human rights.The essay results show that the Ban Amendment of the Basel Convention is in line with Rawl'sdifference principle and the principle of freedom and would contribute to increased justice on electronicwaste coding if the amendment goes through and is used in symbiosis with human rights: UDHRArticle 25 and ICESCR Article 12.1-2.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Andrea
    Stockholm School of Theology.
    Rättigheter för romer- en ram utan innehåll: En fallstudie om romers rättigheter i Kroatien2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a descriptive longitudinal case study of the case of Croatia and its commitments toensure, through European agreements, the realization of Roma rights. The purpose of this paper wasto investigate whether Croatia can be regarded as fulfilling its European commitments regarding therealization of Roma human rights in areas relating to education, work, health and housing. Toachieve this purpose the following questions were answered: ”What rights do Roma have as anational minority in Croatia under European and national law? and ”What changes have occuredregarding Roma rights in Croatia since the ´National Inclusion Strategy for Roma 2013-2020´ wasadopted in 2013?”. The method used in this papper was the traditional legal method.The result of the analysis showed that Croatia, through adpoted and thus binding europeaninstruments, as well as national law, offers strong protection for national minorities, including Roma.However, the analysis also showed that Croatia does not fulfill its commitments under the europeanhuman rights law.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    Stockholm School of Theology, Department of Human Rights.
    Föräldraledighet: En tvärvetenskaplig jämförelse mellan Sverige och USA2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Countries around the world have different systems for parental leave. The United States is the only industrialized country in the world that do not offer any kind of paid parental leave, on a federal level, to its citizens. While some Americans have the right to 12 weeks of unpaid leave, Swedes have the right to 480 days of paid leave. Sweden and the United States are both countries that want to be in the forefront of human rights and according to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), states parties shall “introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances”. The two countries have signed the convention, but only Sweden has ratified it. The political systems and the view of the state, the individual and the family are other distinctions between the countries. Further, the history in which the countries’ welfare has been built has taken different ways. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the differences in parental leave in Sweden and the United States. The jurisprudence, the political systems, the ratification of the CEDAW and the history of welfare will be examined to try to answer the question why these two industrialized countries have a big distinction in the right to paid parental leave.

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